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On any government whatsoever, nature have set limits to people misfortune. Beyond those limits, only remains death, exodus or uprising.
(Diderot, 1713-1784)

Guide and useful resources for identification

1 ➫ Taxonomy

Taxonomy is a hierarchical system to classify and identify living organisms.
This system was created in the 18th century by a swedish botanist, Carl Linnaeus.

The classic classification offers a hierarchy codified into 7 main ranks :
Kingdom ⤑ Phylum ⤑ Class ⤑ Order ⤑ Family ⤑ Genus ⤑ Species

Complete hierarchy of taxonomic ranks

Superkingdom
 Kingdom 
  Subkingdom
   Branch
    Infrakingdom

     Superphylum
      Phylum
       Subphylum
        Infraphylum
         Microphylum

          Superclass
           Class
            Subclass
             Infraclass
              Subterclass

               Superorder
                Order
                 Suborder
                  Infraorder
                   Microorder

                    Superfamily
                     Family
                      Subfamily
                       Tribus
                        Subtribus

                         Genus
                          Subgenus
                           Section
                            Subsection

                             Species
                              Subspecies
                               Variety
                                Subvariety
                                 Forma
                                  Subforma
 

classification of Sphaerocypraea incomparabilis

breakdown of the living world
Sphaerocypraea incomparabilis

NB : there are only 6 specimens (~ 10,000€)

NB very similar looking shells may belong to completely different families ☹ (the modern classification of living organisms is no longer based on the morphological resemblance of the shells but on the degree of genetic appearance of the animal).

2 ➫ Nomenclature conventions

Family names end with the ending "idae". We form them by adding this form to the root of the name of the genus-type. Example : typical genus name : Murex, family name : Muricidae. subfamilies ending is "inae". Example Muricinae. Superfamilies have the ending "acea" or "idea". Example : Muricacea or Muricoidea.

Most collectors classify their shells by families (Conidae, Cassidae,...) and use the binary nomenclature where the name of a species contains two words : the name of the genus (with the first letter in capital letters) and the name of the species (all in lowercase). Example "Cassis cornuta". If you want to specify the subgenus and / or the subspecies, the name can contain up to four words. Example "Conus (Darioconus) crocatus pseudomagister" with the sub-genus in capital letters and in parentheses.

There are still other subtleties of nomenclature if the name is not of Latin origin but comes from a masculine proper noun (ending in "-i"), feminine proper name (ending in "-ae"), plural masculine proper names ( ending in "-orum") or plural feminine proper names (ending in "-arum").

Varieties or forms resulting from further division are designated by the abbreviations var. (= varietas) and placed after the name of the species. Finally, it is customary to add at the end the name of the scientist (s) who, the first, has (have) published the name describing the species, as well as the date. In addition, if a species is transferred from one genus to another (classification revision), the name and the date are in parentheses. Example : Conus (Darioconus) crocatus pseudomagister (Allary & Cossignani, 2016).

For historical reasons, there are still several names for the same shell (synonyms), the search for a species can therefore give variable results depending on the site. The "WORMS" site, which is the reference in terms of taxonomy, indicates all the known synonyms of a taxon.

There are some essential sites that describe a very large number of families with an impressive number of photos, it is very likely to find an unidentified seashell :

To do an identification search, you must therefore already have an idea of the family of the shell you are looking for. For this, the following websites can provide a first indication, visually.

There is also a site that allows you to publish your own collection like these Conidae by Fabrice Prugnaud. In addition, it has a pretty impressive shape recognition function.

NB : the shells are graded as follows :

from GEM to F+ : adult shells (average size of the species) and collected alive
The quality and especially the size strongly influence the prices (ratio of 1 to 20 or more)

4 ➫ Identification keys

The modern classification of shells is no longer based solely on their external appearance but, rather, on the physiology of the mollusk inhabiting the shell. Thus, two very similar seashells are not necessarily of the same family and conversely, two seashells of the same family can have completely different shells ☹

Determining physiological factors for the classification of seashells:

(*) bivalves filter organic matter present in water and cephalopods are all carnivorous.

The identification of a seashell therefore requires a good knowledge of its anatomy. ( gastropod, bivalve and cephalopod anatomy) and shell building process ( gastropod, bivalve and cephalopod shell)

Gastropods : careful observation of the characteristics below can sometimes provide the key to the problem :

NB The large Muricidae family includes totally different species. As a last resort, if not already done, check that the species sought is not listed.

be aware to the colors, same seashells species may have different colour shades (TheMediterranean cone shells, for instance, are so variable in color and shape that they were given almost 200 different scientific names before anyone realized that they all referred to one and the same species (Conus ventricosus)!

Bivalves : families identification keys :

NB The phylum Brachiopods contains species (lingulas, etc.) which should not be confused with bivalves (phylum molluscs) despite their apparent resemblance.

If all your identification searches fail it is because you have a rare or "freak" specimen (unlikely) or that your specimen is either "juvenile" or "beach" (more likely) :

5 ➫ List of families

Navigating seashell sites sometimes requires knowledge of the classification levels above "Family". Thus, the correspondence tables below make it easy to find the ancestors (L+1, L+2) of a family.

These tables also indicate for each family the following two pieces of information :

5.1 ➫ Gastropod families

Gastropods : 517 families (excluding fossils) including 120 families of slugs (without a shell, therefore)

There are approximately 2700 (almost exclusively) terrestrial genus and 1620 aquatic genus (sea, fresh or brackish water). The genus Assiminea is the only one that exists in all possible environments.

Below, the alphabetical list of "Families" with their ancestors "Super-family" (L+1) and "Order" (L+2).

These data are automatically extracted from the "Aphia" taxonomic database thanks to the web services provided by the WoRMS site (last update: April 2020).

There are a number of species whose families are not yet defined ("unassigned families") by the scientific community

each table has 4 columns with an header :
MBFT* Family ← Super-family ← Order


the fourth column is generally "Order", if this is not the case, the rank name is added between parentheses :
 Acmaeidae ← Lottioidea ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass)

If the rank Order is not yet unassigned one displays, between [ ], the parent rank name :
 Modulidae ← Cerithioidea ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]

If the rank Family or Super-family is not yet assigned, one displays [-] :
 Babyloniidae ← [-] ← Neogastropoda

If there is no Super-family, one displays an empty symbol () :
 Globocornidae ← ∅ ← [ Superorder of Sorbeoconcha ]

Finally, one can find combinations of those different cases :
 [-]  ← Acochlidioidea ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
 [-]              ← Cephalaspidea                 

*MBFT ⇒ (marine brackish freshwater terrestrial)
    ⇒ the indicators of environment

The gray lines in italics are families with no shells (slugs)

Click on a letter to hide/display the ancestors of families beginning with this letter.

  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family       ← Order                               
  •     Abronicidae          ← Fionoidea          ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Abyssochrysidae      ← Abyssochrysoidea   ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Acavidae             ← Rhytidoidea        ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Achatinellidae       ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Achatinidae          ← Achatinoidea       ← Achatinina (Suborder)               
  •     Aciculidae           ← Cyclophoroidea     ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Acmaeidae            ← Lottioidea         ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass)        
  •     Acochlidiidae        ← Acochlidioidea     ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder)       
  •     Acroloxidae          ← Lymnaeoidea        ← Hygrophila (Superorder)             
  •     Acteonidae           ← Acteonoidea        ← Acteonimorpha (Subterclass)         
  •     Actinocyclidae       ← Chromodoridoidea   ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Addisoniidae         ← Lepetelloidea      ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Aegiridae            ← Onchidoridoidea    ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Aeolidiidae          ← Aeolidioidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Agardhiellidae       ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Aglajidae            ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Agriolimacidae       ← Limacoidea         ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Aillyidae            ← Achatinoidea       ← Achatinina (Suborder)               
  •    Aitengidae           ← Acochlidioidea     ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder)       
  •     Akeridae             ← Akeroidea          ← Aplysiida                           
  •     Akiodorididae        ← Onchidoridoidea    ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Alacuppidae          ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Amastridae           ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Amathinidae          ← Pyramidelloidea    ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)          
  •     Amnicolidae          ← Truncatelloidea    ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •    Amphibolidae         ← Amphiboloidea      ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)          
  •     Amphibulimidae       ← Orthalicoidea      ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)          
  •     Amphimelaniidae      ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Ampullariidae        ← Ampullarioidea     ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Ampullinidae         ← Campaniloidea      ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Anabathridae         ← Truncatelloidea    ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Anadenidae           ← Arionoidea         ← Arionoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Anatomidae           ← Scissurelloidea    ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Ancillariidae        ← Olivoidea          ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Angariidae           ← Trochoidea         ← Trochida                            
  •     Annulariidae         ← Littorinoidea      ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Antarctophilinidae   ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Apataidae            ← Fionoidea          ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Aplustridae          ← Acteonoidea        ← Acteonimorpha (Subterclass)         
  •     Aplysiidae           ← Aplysioidea        ← Aplysiida                           
  •     Aporrhaidae          ← Stromboidea        ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Architectonicidae    ← Architectonicoidea ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Areneidae            ← Trochoidea         ← Trochida                            
  •     Argnidae             ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Ariolimacidae        ← Arionoidea         ← Arionoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Arionidae            ← Arionoidea         ← Arionoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Ariophantidae        ← Helicarionoidea    ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Arminidae            ← Arminoidea         ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Asperspinidae        ← Parhedyloidea      ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder)       
  •  Assimineidae         ← Truncatelloidea    ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Athoracophoridae     ← Athoracophoroidea  ← Succineoidei (Infraorder)           
  •     Atlantidae           ← Pterotracheoidea   ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Azecidae             ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family    ← Order                         
  •     Babakinidae          ← Aeolidioidea    ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Babyloniidae         ← [-]             ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Barleeiidae          ← Rissooidea      ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Bathydorididae       ← Bathydoridoidea ← Bathydoridoidei (Infraorder)  
  •     Bathyhedylidae       ← Acochlidioidea  ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
  •     Bathyphytophilidae   ← Lepetelloidea   ← Lepetellida                   
  •     Bathysciadiidae      ← Cocculinoidea   ← Cocculinida                   
  •     Batillariidae        ← Cerithioidea    ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Bellolividae         ← Olivoidea       ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Belomitridae         ← Buccinoidea     ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Benthobiidae         ← Olivoidea       ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Binneyidae           ← Arionoidea      ← Arionoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Bithyniidae          ← Truncatelloidea ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Boettgerillidae      ← Limacoidea      ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Bornellidae          ← Dendronotoidea  ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Borsoniidae          ← Conoidea        ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Bothriembryontidae   ← Orthalicoidea   ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)    
  •     Bouchetispiridae     ← Conoidea        ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Buccinidae           ← Buccinoidea     ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Bulimulidae          ← Orthalicoidea   ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)    
  •     Bulinidae            ← Lymnaeoidea     ← Hygrophila (Superorder)       
  •     Bullidae             ← Bulloidea       ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     Burnupiidae          ← Lymnaeoidea     ← Hygrophila (Superorder)       
  •     Bursidae             ← Tonnoidea       ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Bythinellidae        ← Truncatelloidea ← Littorinimorpha               
  • MBFT Family              ← Super-family     ← Order                               
  •     Cadlinellidae       ← Chromodoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Cadlinidae          ← Chromodoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Caecidae            ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Calliostomatidae    ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                            
  •     Calmidae            ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •    Calopiidae          ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Calycidorididae     ← Onchidoridoidea  ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Calyptraeidae       ← Calyptraeoidea   ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Camaenidae          ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Campanilidae        ← Campaniloidea    ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Canariellidae       ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Cancellariidae      ← Volutoidea       ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Capulidae           ← Capuloidea       ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Carinariidae        ← Pterotracheoidea ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Caryodidae          ← Rhytidoidea      ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Cassidae            ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Cataegidae          ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                         
  •     Cavoliniidae        ← Cavolinioidea    ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)            
  •     Caymanabyssiidae    ← Lepetelloidea    ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Cepolidae           ← ∅                ← Percoidei (Suborder)                
  •     Cerastidae          ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Cerionidae          ← Urocoptoidea     ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Cerithiidae         ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Cerithiopsidae      ← Triphoroidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Charitodoronidae    ← Mitroidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Charoniidae         ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Charopidae          ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Chilinidae          ← Chilinoidea      ← Hygrophila (Superorder)             
  •     Chilodontaidae      ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                         
  •     Chondrinidae        ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Choristellidae      ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                         
  •     Chromodorididae     ← Chromodoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Chronidae           ← Trochomorphoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Cimidae             ← Cimoidea         ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Cingulopsidae       ← Cingulopsoidea   ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Clathurellidae      ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Clausiliidae        ← Clausilioidea    ← Clausilioidei (Infraorder)          
  •     Clavatoridae        ← Rhytidoidea      ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Clavatulidae        ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •    Clenchiellidae      ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Cliidae             ← Cavolinioidea    ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)            
  •     Clionidae           ← Clionoidea       ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)              
  •     Cliopsidae          ← Clionoidea       ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)              
  •     Cocculinellidae     ← Lepetelloidea    ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Cocculinidae        ← Cocculinoidea    ← Cocculinida                         
  •     Cochlespiridae      ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Cochlicopidae       ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •   Cochliopidae        ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Coelociontidae      ← Coelociontoidea  ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Colinatydidae       ← Cylichnoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Colloniidae         ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                            
  •     Colpodaspididae     ← Philinoidea      ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Colubrariidae       ← Buccinoidea      ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Columbariidae       ← Turbinelloidea   ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Columbellidae       ← Buccinoidea      ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Conidae             ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Conorbidae          ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Conradiidae         ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                            
  •     Corambidae          ← Onchidoridoidea  ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Corillidae          ← Plectopyloidea   ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Cornirostridae      ← Valvatoidea      ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Coryphellidae       ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Costasiellidae      ← Plakobranchoidea ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)             
  •     Costellariidae      ← Turbinelloidea   ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Craspedopomatidae   ← Cyclophoroidea   ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Creseidae           ← Cavolinioidea    ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)            
  •     Cumanotidae         ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Curnonidae          ← Proctonotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Cuthonellidae       ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Cuthonidae          ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Cyclophoridae       ← Cyclophoroidea   ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Cylichnidae         ← Cylichnoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Cylindrobullidae    ← Oxynooidea       ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)             
  •     Cymatiidae          ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Cymbuliidae         ← Cymbulioidea     ← Pseudothecosomata (Suborder)        
  •     Cypraeidae          ← Cypraeoidea      ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Cystiscidae         ← Volutoidea       ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Cystopeltidae       ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family     ← Order                        
  •     Dendrodorididae   ← Phyllidioidea    ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Dendronotidae     ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Depressizonidae   ← Scissurelloidea  ← Lepetellida                  
  •     Desmopteridae     ← Cymbulioidea     ← Pseudothecosomata (Suborder) 
  •     Dialidae          ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Diaphanidae       ← Cylichnoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                
  •     Diapheridae       ← Streptaxoidea    ← Achatinina (Suborder)        
  •     Diastomatidae     ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Diplommatinidae   ← Cyclophoroidea   ← Architaenioglossa            
  •     Dironidae         ← Proctonotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Discidae          ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]   
  •     Discodorididae    ← Doridoidea       ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Dorcasiidae       ← Rhytidoidea      ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Dorididae         ← Doridoidea       ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Doridomorphidae   ← Arminoidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Doridoxidae       ← Doridoxoidea     ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Dotidae           ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Draparnaudiidae   ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Drilliidae        ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                
  •     Dyakiidae         ← Trochomorphoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)      
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family     ← Order                        
  •     Eatoniellidae     ← Cingulopsoidea   ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Elachisinidae     ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •   Ellobiidae        ← Ellobioidea      ← Ellobiida                    
  •     Elonidae          ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Emblandidae       ← Rissooidea       ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Embletoniidae     ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Emmericiidae      ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Endodontidae      ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]   
  •     Enidae            ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Eoacmaeidae       ← Lottioidea       ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass) 
  •     Eoscaphandridae   ← Cylichnoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                
  •     Epigridae         ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Epirobiidae       ← Urocoptoidea     ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]   
  •     Epitoniidae       ← Epitonioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Eratoidae         ← Cypraeoidea      ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Eubranchidae      ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Eucalodiidae      ← Urocoptoidea     ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]   
  •     Euconulidae       ← Trochomorphoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Eucyclidae        ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                  
  •     Eudaroniidae      ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                  
  •     Eulimidae         ← Vanikoroidea     ← Littorinimorpha              
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family    ← Order                    
  •     Facelinidae        ← Aeolidioidea    ← Cladobranchia (Suborder) 
  •     Falsicingulidae    ← Truncatelloidea ← Littorinimorpha          
  •     Fasciolariidae     ← Buccinoidea     ← Neogastropoda            
  •     Fauxulidae         ← Pupilloidea     ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder) 
  •     Ferussaciidae      ← Achatinoidea    ← Achatinina (Suborder)    
  •     Ficidae            ← Ficoidea        ← Littorinimorpha          
  •     Fionidae           ← Fionoidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder) 
  •     Fissurellidae      ← Fissurelloidea  ← Lepetellida              
  •     Flabellinidae      ← Fionoidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder) 
  •     Flabellinopsidae   ← Aeolidioidea    ← Cladobranchia (Suborder) 
  •     Fusiturridae       ← Conoidea        ← Neogastropoda            
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family    ← Order                          
  •     Gastrocoptidae   ← Pupilloidea     ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Gastrodontidae   ← Gastrodontoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)        
  •     Gastropteridae   ← Philinoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                  
  •     Geomitridae      ← Helicoidea      ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)        
  •     Glacidorbidae    ← Glacidorboidea  ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)     
  •     Glaucidae        ← Aeolidioidea    ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)       
  •     Globocornidae    ← ∅               ← [ Superorder of Sorbeoconcha ] 
  •     Goniaeolididae   ← [-]             ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)       
  •     Goniodorididae   ← Onchidoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)        
  •     Granulinidae     ← Volutoidea      ← Neogastropoda                  
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family     ← Order                               
  •     Haliotidae        ← Haliotoidea      ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Haloceratidae     ← Vanikoroidea     ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Haminoeidae       ← Haminoeoidea     ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Hancockiidae      ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Haplotrematidae   ← Haplotrematoidea ← Oleacinoidei (Infraorder)           
  •     Harpidae          ← [-]              ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Hedylopsidae      ← Acochlidioidea   ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder)       
  •     Helicarionidae    ← Helicarionoidea  ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Helicidae         ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Helicinidae       ← Helicinoidea     ← Cycloneritida                       
  •     Helicodiscidae    ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Helicodontidae    ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Heliconoididae    ← Limacinoidea     ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)            
  •     Helicostoidae     ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Hemisinidae       ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Hermaeidae        ← Plakobranchoidea ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)             
  •     Heroidae          ← [-]              ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Hexabranchidae    ← Chromodoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Hipponicidae      ← Vanikoroidea     ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Holospiridae      ← Urocoptoidea     ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Horaiclavidae     ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Hyalogyrinidae    ← Valvatoidea      ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •   Hydrobiidae       ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Hydrocenidae      ← Hydrocenoidea    ← Cycloneritida                       
  •    Hydrococcidae     ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Hydromylidae      ← Hydromyloidea    ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)              
  •     Hygromiidae       ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  • MBFT Family        ← Super-family    ← Order           
  •     Ilbiidae      ← Runcinoidea     ← Runcinida       
  •    Iravadiidae   ← Truncatelloidea ← Littorinimorpha 
  • MBFT Family      ← Super-family   ← Order                    
  •     Janolidae   ← Proctonotoidea ← Cladobranchia (Suborder) 
  •     Juliidae    ← Oxynooidea     ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)  
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family     ← Order                        
  •     Labyrinthidae      ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Laginiopsidae      ← Hydromyloidea    ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)       
  •     Laonidae           ← Philinoidea      ← Cephalaspidea                
  •     Larocheidae        ← Scissurelloidea  ← Lepetellida                  
  •     Latiidae           ← Chilinoidea      ← Hygrophila (Superorder)      
  •     Laubierinidae      ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Lauriidae          ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Lemindidae         ← Proctonotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Lepetellidae       ← Lepetelloidea    ← Lepetellida                  
  •     Lepetidae          ← Lottioidea       ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass) 
  •     Lepetodrilidae     ← Lepetodriloidea  ← Lepetellida                  
  •     Limacidae          ← Limacoidea       ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Limacinidae        ← Limacinoidea     ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)     
  •     Limapontiidae      ← Plakobranchoidea ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)      
  •     Liotiidae          ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                     
  •     Lironobidae        ← Rissooidea       ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Lithoglyphidae     ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Lithoglyphulidae   ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Litiopidae         ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •    Littorinidae       ← Littorinoidea    ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Lomanotidae        ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Lottiidae          ← Lottioidea       ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass) 
  •     Lymnaeidae         ← Lymnaeoidea      ← Hygrophila (Superorder)      
  •     Lyocyclidae        ← ∅                ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family      ← Order                               
  •     Macrocyclidae        ← Rhytidoidea       ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Madrellidae          ← Proctonotoidea    ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Maizaniidae          ← Cyclophoroidea    ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Mandeliidae          ← Phyllidioidea     ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Mangeliidae          ← Conoidea          ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Maningrididae        ← Amphiboloidea     ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)          
  •     Margaritidae         ← Trochoidea        ← Trochida                            
  •     Marginellidae        ← Volutoidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Marginellonidae      ← Volutoidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Marshallenidae       ← Conoidea          ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Mathildidae          ← Mathildoidea      ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Megalomastomatidae   ← Cyclophoroidea    ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Megaspiridae         ← Orthalicoidea     ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)          
  •     Megomphicidae        ← Rhytidoidea       ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Melanodrymiidae      ← Neomphaloidea     ← Neomphalida                         
  •     Melanopsidae         ← Cerithioidea      ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Melongenidae         ← Buccinoidea       ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Micractaeonidae      ← Achatinoidea      ← Achatinina (Suborder)               
  •     Milacidae            ← Parmacelloidea    ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Mitridae             ← Mitroidea         ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Mitromorphidae       ← Conoidea          ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Mnestiidae           ← Cylichnoidea      ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Modulidae            ← Cerithioidea      ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]        
  •     Moitessieriidae      ← Truncatelloidea   ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Murchisonellidae     ← Murchisonelloidea ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Muricidae            ← Muricoidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Murmaniidae          ← Fionoidea         ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Myrrhinidae          ← Aeolidioidea      ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family   ← Order                        
  •     Nacellidae         ← Patelloidea    ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass) 
  •   Nassariidae        ← Buccinoidea    ← Neogastropoda                
  •     Naticidae          ← Naticoidea     ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Neocyclotidae      ← Cyclophoroidea ← Architaenioglossa            
  •     Neolepetopsidae    ← Lottioidea     ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass) 
  •     Neomphalidae       ← Neomphaloidea  ← Neomphalida                  
  •   Neritidae          ← Neritoidea     ← Cycloneritida                
  •   Neritiliidae       ← Helicinoidea   ← Cycloneritida                
  •     Neritopsidae       ← Neritopsoidea  ← Cycloneritida                
  •     Newnesiidae        ← Newnesioidea   ← Cephalaspidea                
  •     Newtoniellidae     ← Triphoroidea   ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Notaeolidiidae     ← Aeolidioidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Notobranchaeidae   ← Clionoidea     ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)       
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family     ← Order                               
  •     Odontocycladidae   ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Odontostomidae     ← Orthalicoidea    ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)          
  •     Okadaiidae         ← [-]              ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Oleacinidae        ← Oleacinoidea     ← Oleacinoidei (Infraorder)           
  •     Olividae           ← Olivoidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Omalogyridae       ← Omalogyroidea    ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •   Onchidiidae        ← Onchidioidea     ← Systellommatophora                  
  •     Onchidorididae     ← Onchidoridoidea  ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Oopeltidae         ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Orbitestellidae    ← Orbitestelloidea ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Orculidae          ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Oreohelicidae      ← Punctoidea       ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]          
  •     Orthalicidae       ← Orthalicoidea    ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)          
  •     Osteopeltidae      ← Lepetelloidea    ← Lepetellida                         
  •     Otinidae           ← Ellobioidea      ← Ellobiida                           
  •     Ovulidae           ← Cypraeoidea      ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Oxychilidae        ← Gastrodontoidea  ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Oxynoidae          ← Oxynooidea       ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)             
  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family       ← Order                         
  •    Pachychilidae        ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pagodulinidae        ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Paludomidae          ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Papillodermatidae    ← Papillodermatoidea ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]    
  •     Paracoryphellidae    ← Fionoidea          ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Parhedylidae         ← Parhedyloidea      ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
  •     Parmacellidae        ← Parmacelloidea     ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Partulidae           ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Patellidae           ← Patelloidea        ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass)  
  •     Pectinodontidae      ← Lottioidea         ← Patellogastropoda (Subclass)  
  •     Peltospiridae        ← Neomphaloidea      ← Neomphalida                   
  •     Pelycidiidae         ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pendromidae          ← Seguenzioidea      ← Seguenziida                   
  •     Peraclidae           ← Cymbulioidea       ← Pseudothecosomata (Suborder)  
  •     Personidae           ← Tonnoidea          ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Phasianellidae       ← Trochoidea         ← Trochida                      
  •     Phenacolepadidae     ← Neritoidea         ← Cycloneritida                 
  •     Philinidae           ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     Philinoglossidae     ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     Philinorbidae        ← Philinoidea        ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     Philomycidae         ← Arionoidea         ← Arionoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Phyllidiidae         ← Phyllidioidea      ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Phylliroidae         ← [-]                ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Physidae             ← Lymnaeoidea        ← Hygrophila (Superorder)       
  •     Pickworthiidae       ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pinufiidae           ← Fionoidea          ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Pisaniidae           ← Buccinoidea        ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Piseinotecidae       ← Aeolidioidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Plakobranchidae      ← Plakobranchoidea   ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)       
  •     Planaxidae           ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Planorbidae          ← Lymnaeoidea        ← Hygrophila (Superorder)       
  •     Platyhedylidae       ← Platyhedyloidea    ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)       
  •     Plectopylidae        ← Plectopyloidea     ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]    
  •     Plesiotrochidae      ← Campaniloidea      ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pleurobranchaeidae   ← Pleurobranchoidea  ← Pleurobranchida               
  •     Pleurobranchidae     ← Pleurobranchoidea  ← Pleurobranchida               
  •     Pleuroceridae        ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pleurodiscidae       ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Pleurodontidae       ← Helicoidea         ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Pleurolidiidae       ← Aeolidioidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Pleurotomariidae     ← Pleurotomarioidea  ← Pleurotomariida               
  •     Pneumodermatidae     ← Clionoidea         ← Gymnosomata (Suborder)        
  •     Polyceridae          ← Polyceroidea       ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Polygyridae          ← Helicoidea         ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Pomatiidae           ← Littorinoidea      ← Littorinimorpha               
  •   Pomatiopsidae        ← Truncatelloidea    ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Potamididae          ← Cerithioidea       ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pristilomatidae      ← Gastrodontoidea    ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Proctonotidae        ← Proctonotoidea     ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Proserpinellidae     ← Helicinoidea       ← Cycloneritida                 
  •     Proserpinidae        ← Helicinoidea       ← Cycloneritida                 
  •     Provannidae          ← Abyssochrysoidea   ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Pseudococculinidae   ← Lepetelloidea      ← Lepetellida                   
  •     Pseudolividae        ← Olivoidea          ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Pseudomelatomidae    ← Conoidea           ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Pseudovermidae       ← Fionoidea          ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Pseudunelidae        ← Acochlidioidea     ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
  •     Pterotracheidae      ← Pterotracheoidea   ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Ptychatractidae      ← Turbinelloidea     ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Punctidae            ← Punctoidea         ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]    
  •     Pupillidae           ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Pupinidae            ← Cyclophoroidea     ← Architaenioglossa             
  •     Pyramidellidae       ← Pyramidelloidea    ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)    
  •     Pyramidulidae        ← Pupilloidea        ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Pyramimitridae       ← Mitroidea          ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Pyropeltidae         ← Lepetelloidea      ← Lepetellida                   
  • MBFT Family       ← Super-family      ← Order           
  •     Quijotidae   ← Pleurobranchoidea ← Pleurobranchida 
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family    ← Order                               
  •     Ranellidae       ← Tonnoidea       ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Raphitomidae     ← Conoidea        ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Rastodentidae    ← Cingulopsoidea  ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Rathouisiidae    ← Veronicelloidea ← Systellommatophora                  
  •     Retusidae        ← Bulloidea       ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Rhizoridae       ← Bulloidea       ← Cephalaspidea                       
  •     Rhodopidae       ← Rhodopoidea     ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Rhytididae       ← Rhytidoidea     ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Ringiculidae     ← Ringiculoidea   ← Ringiculimorpha (Superorder)        
  •     Rissoellidae     ← Rissoelloidea   ← Acteonimorpha (Subterclass)         
  •     Rissoidae        ← Rissooidea      ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Rissoinidae      ← Rissooidea      ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Rostellariidae   ← Stromboidea     ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Runcinidae       ← Runcinoidea     ← Runcinida                           
  • MBFT Family                ← Super-family     ← Order                        
  •     Sagdidae              ← Sagdoidea        ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Samlidae              ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Scaliolidae           ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Scaphandridae         ← Philinoidea      ← Cephalaspidea                
  •     Scissurellidae        ← Scissurelloidea  ← Lepetellida                  
  •     Scolodontidae         ← Scolodontoidea   ← Scolodontina (Suborder)      
  •     Sculptariidae         ← Plectopyloidea   ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]   
  •     Scyllaeidae           ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)     
  •     Seguenziidae          ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                  
  •     Semisulcospiridae     ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Seraphsidae           ← Stromboidea      ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Showajidaiidae        ← Chromodoridoidea ← Doridoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Siliquariidae         ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Simpulopsidae         ← Orthalicoidea    ← Orthalicoidei (Infraorder)   
  •     Siphonariidae         ← Siphonarioidea   ← Siphonariida                 
  •     Skeneidae             ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                     
  •     Skeneopsidae          ← Littorinoidea    ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Solariellidae         ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                     
  •     Solaropsidae          ← Sagdoidea        ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Spelaeoconchidae      ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Spelaeodiscidae       ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Sphincterochilidae    ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Spiraxidae            ← Oleacinoidea     ← Oleacinoidei (Infraorder)    
  •     Spirostyliferinidae   ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Staffordiidae         ← Trochomorphoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)      
  •    Stenothyridae         ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Strepsiduridae        ← [-]              ← Neogastropoda                
  •     Streptaxidae          ← Streptaxoidea    ← Achatinina (Suborder)        
  •     Strobilopsidae        ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Strombidae            ← Stromboidea      ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Strophocheilidae      ← Rhytidoidea      ← Rhytidoidei (Infraorder)     
  •     Struthiolariidae      ← Stromboidea      ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Succineidae           ← Succineoidea     ← Succineoidei (Infraorder)    
  •     Sutilizonidae         ← Lepetodriloidea  ← Lepetellida                  
  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family     ← Order                         
  •     Tantulidae           ← Acochlidioidea   ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
  •     Tateidae             ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Tegulidae            ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                      
  •     Terebridae           ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Tergipedidae         ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Testacellidae        ← Testacelloidea   ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ]    
  •     Tethydidae           ← Dendronotoidea   ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Thalassocyonidae     ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha               
  •    Thiaridae            ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Thieleidae           ← Limacinoidea     ← Euthecosomata (Suborder)      
  •     Thysanophoridae      ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Tjaernoeiidae        ← ∅                ← [ Superorder of Euthyneura ]  
  •     Tomichiidae          ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Tonnidae             ← Tonnoidea        ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Tornatinidae         ← Bulloidea        ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     Tornidae             ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Trichodiscinidae     ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Trigonochlamydidae   ← Parmacelloidea   ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Trimusculidae        ← Ellobioidea      ← Ellobiida                     
  •     Trinchesiidae        ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Triphoridae          ← Triphoroidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Trissexodontidae     ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)       
  •     Tritoniidae          ← Tritonioidea     ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)      
  •     Triviidae            ← Cypraeoidea      ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Trochaclididae       ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                   
  •     Trochidae            ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                      
  •     Trochomorphidae      ← Trochomorphoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)       
  •    Truncatellidae       ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha               
  •     Truncatellinidae     ← Pupilloidea      ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Tudiclidae           ← Buccinoidea      ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Turbinellidae        ← Turbinelloidea   ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Turbinidae           ← Trochoidea       ← Trochida                      
  •     Turridae             ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     Turritellidae        ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     Tylodinidae          ← Umbraculoidea    ← Umbraculida                   
  • MBFT Family         ← Super-family    ← Order                      
  •     Umbraculidae   ← Umbraculoidea   ← Umbraculida                
  •     Unidentiidae   ← Fionoidea       ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)   
  •     Urocoptidae    ← Urocoptoidea    ← [ Infraorder of Helicina ] 
  •     Urocyclidae    ← Helicarionoidea ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)    
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family    ← Order                               
  •     Valloniidae      ← Pupilloidea     ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Valvatidae       ← Valvatoidea     ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  •     Vanikoridae      ← Vanikoroidea    ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Velutinidae      ← Cypraeoidea     ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Vermetidae       ← Vermetoidea     ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Veronicellidae   ← Veronicelloidea ← Systellommatophora                  
  •     Vertiginidae     ← Pupilloidea     ← Pupilloidei (Infraorder)            
  •     Vitrinellidae    ← Truncatelloidea ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Vitrinidae       ← Limacoidea      ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Viviparidae      ← Viviparoidea    ← Architaenioglossa                   
  •     Volutidae        ← Volutoidea      ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Volutomitridae   ← Turbinelloidea  ← Neogastropoda                       
  •     Volvatellidae    ← Oxynooidea      ← Sacoglossa (Superorder)             
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family     ← Order                               
  •     Xanthonychidae   ← Helicoidea       ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)             
  •     Xenocratenidae   ← Fionoidea        ← Cladobranchia (Suborder)            
  •     Xenophoridae     ← Xenophoroidea    ← Littorinimorpha                     
  •     Xylodisculidae   ← Orbitestelloidea ← "Lower Heterobranchia" (Infraclass) 
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family  ← Order                        
  •     Zachrysiidae     ← Sagdoidea     ← Helicoidei (Infraorder)      
  •     Zebinidae        ← Rissooidea    ← Littorinimorpha              
  •    Zemelanopsidae   ← Cerithioidea  ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ] 
  •     Zerotulidae      ← Littorinoidea ← Littorinimorpha              
  •     Zonitidae        ← Zonitoidea    ← Limacoidei (Infraorder)      
  • MBFT Family ← Super-family     ← Order                         
  •     [-]    ← Abyssochrysoidea ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     [-]    ← Acochlidioidea   ← Acochlidiimorpha (Superorder) 
  •     [-]    ← ∅                ← Cephalaspidea                 
  •     [-]    ← Cerithioidea     ← [ Order of Caenogastropoda ]  
  •     [-]    ← Conoidea         ← Neogastropoda                 
  •     [-]    ← Neomphaloidea    ← Neomphalida                   
  •     [-]    ← Pyramidelloidea  ← Pylopulmonata (Superorder)    
  •     [-]    ← Seguenzioidea    ← Seguenziida                   
  •    [-]    ← Truncatelloidea  ← Littorinimorpha               

Conversely, the page conchyliology allows to display the list of ranks N+2.

5.2 ➫ Bivalve families

Bivalves : 120 families (excluding fossils).

All bivalves live only in an aquatic environment (sea, fresh or brackish water), more than 88% of the families in a marine environment. However, 41% of the genus live in fresh water (including brackish) and 59% in a marine (including brackish) environment.

These data are automatically extracted from the "Aphia" taxonomic database thanks to the web services provided by the WoRMS site (last update: April 2020).

each table has 4 columns with an header :
MBFT* Family ← Super-family ← Order


the fourth column is generally "Order", if not, we add the name of this rank in parentheses :
 Cyamiidae ← Cyamioidea ← Imparidentia (Superorder)

*MBF ⇒ (marine brackish freshwater)
   ⇒ the environmental indicators

Click on a letter to hide/display the ancestors of families beginning with this letter.

  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family    ← Order     
  •     Anatinellidae   ← Mactroidea      ← Venerida  
  •     Anomiidae       ← Anomioidea      ← Pectinida 
  •     Arcidae         ← Arcoidea        ← Arcida    
  •     Arcticidae      ← Arcticoidea     ← Venerida  
  •     Astartidae      ← Crassatelloidea ← Carditida 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Basterotiidae      ← Galeommatoidea  ← Galeommatida                
  •     Bentholyonsiidae   ← Verticordioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Cardiidae          ← Cardioidea      ← Cardiida                    
  •     Cardiliidae        ← Mactroidea      ← Venerida                    
  •     Carditidae         ← Carditoidea     ← Carditida                   
  •     Cetoconchidae      ← Poromyoidea     ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Chamidae           ← Chamoidea       ← Venerida                    
  •     Clavagellidae      ← Clavagelloidea  ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Cleidothaeridae    ← Myochamoidea    ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Clistoconchidae    ← Thracioidea     ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Corbulidae         ← Myoidea         ← Myida                       
  •     Crassatellidae     ← Crassatelloidea ← Carditida                   
  •     Cucullaeidae       ← Arcoidea        ← Arcida                      
  •     Cuspidariidae      ← Cuspidarioidea  ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Cyamiidae          ← Cyamioidea      ← Imparidentia (Superorder)   
  •     Cyclochlamydidae   ← Pectinoidea     ← Pectinida                   
  •    Cyrenidae          ← Cyrenoidea      ← Venerida                    
  •    Cyrenoididae       ← Cyrenoidea      ← Venerida                    
  • MBFT Family         ← Super-family  ← Order     
  •     Dimyidae       ← Dimyoidea     ← Pectinida 
  •    Donacidae      ← Tellinoidea   ← Cardiida  
  •     Dreissenidae   ← Dreissenoidea ← Myida     
  • MBFT Family       ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Etheriidae   ← Etherioidea     ← Unionida                    
  •     Euciroidae   ← Verticordioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family     ← Order                     
  •     Gaimardiidae       ← Gaimardioidea    ← Imparidentia (Superorder) 
  •     Galatheavalvidae   ← Cyamioidea       ← Imparidentia (Superorder) 
  •     Galeommatidae      ← Galeommatoidea   ← Galeommatida              
  •     Gastrochaenidae    ← Gastrochaenoidea ← Gastrochaenida            
  •     Glauconomidae      ← Cyrenoidea       ← Venerida                  
  •     Glossidae          ← Glossoidea       ← Venerida                  
  •     Glycymerididae     ← Arcoidea         ← Arcida                    
  •     Gryphaeidae        ← Ostreoidea       ← Ostreida                  
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family   ← Order                       
  •     Halonymphidae   ← Cuspidarioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Hemidonacidae   ← Hemidonacoidea ← Venerida                    
  •     Hiatellidae     ← Hiatelloidea   ← Adapedonta                  
  •     Hyriidae        ← Unionoidea     ← Unionida                    
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family ← Order    
  •     Iridinidae      ← Etherioidea  ← Unionida 
  •     Isognomonidae   ← Pterioidea   ← Ostreida 
  • MBFT Family         ← Super-family ← Order    
  •     Kelliellidae   ← Glossoidea   ← Venerida 
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Lametilidae     ← Nuculanoidea    ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Lasaeidae       ← Galeommatoidea  ← Galeommatida                
  •     Laternulidae    ← ∅               ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Limidae         ← Limoidea        ← Limida                      
  •     Limopsidae      ← Limopsoidea     ← Arcida                      
  •     Lucinidae       ← Lucinoidea      ← Lucinida                    
  •     Lyonsiellidae   ← Verticordioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Lyonsiidae      ← Pandoroidea     ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family ← Order                       
  •     Mactridae          ← Mactroidea   ← Venerida                    
  •     Malleidae          ← Pterioidea   ← Ostreida                    
  •     Malletiidae        ← Nuculanoidea ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Margaritidae       ← Pterioidea   ← Ostreida                    
  •     Margaritiferidae   ← Unionoidea   ← Unionida                    
  •     Mesodesmatidae     ← Mactroidea   ← Venerida                    
  •     Mycetopodidae      ← Etherioidea  ← Unionida                    
  •     Myidae             ← Myoidea      ← Myida                       
  •     Myochamidae        ← Myochamoidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Mytilidae          ← Mytiloidea   ← Mytilida                    
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family   ← Order      
  •     Neilonellidae   ← Nuculanoidea   ← Nuculanida 
  •     Neoleptonidae   ← Veneroidea     ← Venerida   
  •     Noetiidae       ← Arcoidea       ← Arcida     
  •     Nucinellidae    ← Manzanelloidea ← Solemyida  
  •     Nuculanidae     ← Nuculanoidea   ← Nuculanida 
  •     Nuculidae       ← Nuculoidea     ← Nuculida   
  • MBFT Family      ← Super-family ← Order    
  •     Ostreidae   ← Ostreoidea   ← Ostreida 
  • MBFT Family               ← Super-family   ← Order                       
  •     Pandoridae           ← Pandoroidea    ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Parallelodontidae    ← Arcoidea       ← Arcida                      
  •     Parilimyidae         ← Pholadomyoidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Pectinidae           ← Pectinoidea    ← Pectinida                   
  •     Penicillidae         ← Clavagelloidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Periplomatidae       ← Thracioidea    ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •   Pharidae             ← Solenoidea     ← Adapedonta                  
  •     Phaseolidae          ← Nuculanoidea   ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Philobryidae         ← Limopsoidea    ← Arcida                      
  •     Pholadidae           ← Pholadoidea    ← Myida                       
  •     Pholadomyidae        ← Pholadomyoidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Pinnidae             ← Pinnoidea      ← Ostreida                    
  •     Placunidae           ← Anomioidea     ← Pectinida                   
  •     Plicatulidae         ← Plicatuloidea  ← Pectinida                   
  •     Poromyidae           ← Poromyoidea    ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Propeamussiidae      ← Pectinoidea    ← Pectinida                   
  •     Protocuspidariidae   ← Cuspidarioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Psammobiidae         ← Tellinoidea    ← Cardiida                    
  •     Pteriidae            ← Pterioidea     ← Ostreida                    
  •     Pulvinitidae         ← Pterioidea     ← Ostreida                    
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family   ← Order                       
  •     Sareptidae      ← Sareptoidea    ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Semelidae       ← Tellinoidea    ← Cardiida                    
  •     Siliculidae     ← Nuculanoidea   ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Solecurtidae    ← Tellinoidea    ← Cardiida                    
  •     Solemyidae      ← Solemyoidea    ← Solemyida                   
  •     Solenidae       ← Solenoidea     ← Adapedonta                  
  •     Sphaeriidae     ← Sphaerioidea   ← Sphaeriida                  
  •     Spheniopsidae   ← Cuspidarioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Spondylidae     ← Pectinoidea    ← Pectinida                   
  •     Sportellidae    ← Cyamioidea     ← Imparidentia (Superorder)   
  • MBFT Family        ← Super-family ← Order                       
  •     Tellinidae    ← Tellinoidea  ← Cardiida                    
  •     Teredinidae   ← Pholadoidea  ← Myida                       
  •     Thraciidae    ← Thracioidea  ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Thyasiridae   ← Thyasiroidea ← Lucinida                    
  •     Tindariidae   ← Nuculanoidea ← Nuculanida                  
  •     Trapezidae    ← Arcticoidea  ← Venerida                    
  •     Trigoniidae   ← Trigonioidea ← Trigoniida                  
  • MBFT Family        ← Super-family ← Order    
  •     Ungulinidae   ← Ungulinoidea ← Venerida 
  •     Unionidae     ← Unionoidea   ← Unionida 
  • MBFT Family           ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Veneridae        ← Veneroidea      ← Venerida                    
  •     Verticordiidae   ← Verticordioidea ← Anomalodesmata (Superorder) 
  •     Vesicomyidae     ← Glossoidea      ← Venerida                    
  •     Vulsellidae      ← Pterioidea      ← Ostreida                    
  • MBFT Family          ← Super-family ← Order 
  •     Xylophagaidae   ← Pholadoidea  ← Myida 
  • MBFT Family      ← Super-family ← Order      
  •     Yoldiidae   ← Nuculanoidea ← Nuculanida 

Conversely, the page conchyliology allows to display the list of ranks L+2.

5.3 ➫ Cephalopod families

Cephalopods : 49 families (excluding fossils) only three of which have a shell.

Cephalopods are exclusively marine molluscs.

These data are automatically extracted from the "Aphia" taxonomic database thanks to the web services provided by the WoRMS site (last update: April 2020).

each table has 4 columns with an header :
MBFT* Family ← Super-family ← Order


the fourth column is generally "Order", if not, we add the name of this rank between () :
 Argonautidae ← Argonautoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder)

if the rank Order is unassigned, one display between [ ], the parent of the rank :
 Bathyteuthidae ← Bathyteuthoidea ← [ Order of Decapodiformes ]

if there is no Superfamily, one display the empty symbol () :
 Ancistrocheiridae  ←  ← Oegopsida 

Finally, one can find a combination of all these cases :
 Cirroctopodidae  ←  ← Cirrata (Suborder)
 Idiosepiidae     ← [ Order of Decapodiformes ] 

*MBFT ⇒ (marine)
 ⇒ the indicators of environment

the gray lines in italics are families with no shells

Click on a letter to hide/display the ancestors of families beginning with this letter.

  • MBFT Family              ← Super-family  ← Order                
  •     Alloposidae         ← Argonautoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Amphitretidae       ← Octopodoidea  ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Ancistrocheiridae   ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Architeuthidae      ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Argonautidae        ← Argonautoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Australiteuthidae   ← ∅             ← Myopsida             
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Bathypolypodidae   ← Octopodoidea    ← Incirrata (Suborder)        
  •     Bathyteuthidae     ← Bathyteuthoidea ← [ Order of Decapodiformes ] 
  •     Batoteuthidae      ← ∅               ← Oegopsida                   
  •     Brachioteuthidae   ← ∅               ← Oegopsida                   
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family    ← Order                       
  •     Chiroteuthidae     ← ∅               ← Oegopsida                   
  •     Chtenopterygidae   ← Bathyteuthoidea ← [ Order of Decapodiformes ] 
  •     Cirroctopodidae    ← ∅               ← Cirrata (Suborder)          
  •     Cirroteuthidae     ← ∅               ← Cirrata (Suborder)          
  •     Cranchiidae        ← ∅               ← Oegopsida                   
  •     Cycloteuthidae     ← ∅               ← Oegopsida                   
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family ← Order                
  •     Eledonidae         ← Octopodoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Enoploteuthidae    ← ∅            ← Oegopsida            
  •     Enteroctopodidae   ← Octopodoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  • MBFT Family      ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Gonatidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Histioteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family         ← Super-family ← Order                       
  •     Idiosepiidae   ← ∅            ← [ Order of Decapodiformes ] 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Joubiniteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Lepidoteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  •     Loliginidae       ← ∅            ← Myopsida  
  •     Lycoteuthidae     ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family ← Order                
  •     Magnapinnidae      ← ∅            ← Oegopsida            
  •     Mastigoteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida            
  •     Megaleledonidae    ← Octopodoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  • MBFT Family         ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Nautilidae     ← ∅            ← Nautilida 
  •     Neoteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family  ← Order                
  •     Octopodidae        ← Octopodoidea  ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Octopoteuthidae    ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Ocythoidae         ← Argonautoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  •     Ommastrephidae     ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Onychoteuthidae    ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Opisthoteuthidae   ← ∅             ← Cirrata (Suborder)   
  • MBFT Family              ← Super-family ← Order     
  •     Pholidoteuthidae    ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  •     Promachoteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  •     Psychroteuthidae    ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  •     Pyroteuthidae       ← ∅            ← Oegopsida 
  • MBFT Family            ← Super-family ← Order              
  •     Sepiadariidae     ← ∅            ← Sepiida            
  •     Sepiidae          ← ∅            ← Sepiida            
  •     Sepiolidae        ← ∅            ← Sepiida            
  •     Spirulidae        ← ∅            ← Spirulida          
  •     Stauroteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Cirrata (Suborder) 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family  ← Order                
  •     Thysanoteuthidae   ← ∅             ← Oegopsida            
  •     Tremoctopodidae    ← Argonautoidea ← Incirrata (Suborder) 
  • MBFT Family             ← Super-family ← Order         
  •     Vampyroteuthidae   ← ∅            ← Vampyromorpha 

Conversely, the page conchyliology allows to display the list of ranks L+2.

6 ➫ Preservation and collection of seashells

The prospect of excessive seashell collection sometimes raises concerns among conservationists. As a result, the places most coveted by collectors are subject to strict rules to ensure the maintenance of the species sought. Unfortunately, there are still a few countries (the Philippines, for example) whose seashell trade has led to environmental degradation and a reduction in species. However, the main threat to seashell populations is the destruction of their habitat (climate change, pollution, coastal urbanization). To date, no specimen of marine molluscs is threatened with extinction, but this is not the case for terrestrial and freshwater species. Besides a storm that can send millions of molluscs to die on the beach all at once, seashell gathering is insignificant. As long as collectors preserve the seashell habitat, they are no more threatening than other predators, provided that they limit themselves to a few adult specimens of each species.

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REFERENCES

french sites

english sites

personal bibliography

  • LINDNER, GertGuide des COQUILLAGES MARINS Traduit de l'allemand par Michel CUISIN. Neufchâtel - Paris: DELACHAUX & NIESTLE; Italie, 1989, 255 p. ISBN 2-2603-00689-4
  • TUCKER ABBOTT, RobertCOQUILLAGES - espèces du monde entier Traduit de l'anglais par Paul Henri FISCHER. Paris: HACHETTE; Imprimerie : Vérone (Italie), officine Grafiche A. Mondadori, 1964, 160 p.
  • ROSE, FrançoiseLE PETIT COLLECTIONNEUR ... LES COQUILLAGES HACHETTE jeunesse; Imprimerie Jean-Lamour à Maxéville; ISBN 2-01-291690-2
  • TUCKER ABBOTT, Robert & DANCE, Stanley Peter.COMPENDIUM OF SEASHELLS El Cajon California, USA: Odyssey Publishing; CHINA, 2000, 413 p. ISBN 0-9661720-0-0
  • GANTES, R.T.F.LES COQUILLAGES Marabout service; verviers (Belgique)
  • ELZIERE-PAPAYANNI, P.Coquillages ITSVF (Informations Techniques des Services Vétérinaires Français); Paris (France); Imprimerie LABALLERY; ISBN 2-91 0237-00-1
my guides on seashells
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